Deepak Vij is the head of the Fraud and Complex Crime department at ABV Solicitors. Deepak specialises in high profile, complex white & grey-collar serious fraud cases and has over 25 years of experience in this field. He has featured in the Mail on Sunday, Sunday Times and the Sunday Telegraph for being rated as one of Britain’s top rated solicitors. He is also highly recommended consistently in the Legal 500 and Chambers & Partners.
Deepak is extremely sought after and consulted regularly on matters including investigations conducted by the SFO, FCA, NCA, HMRC, Trading Standards, Local Authority, DBIS and the CPS.
His work includes advising clients and corporations both pre and post charge. These clients include companies, high-net worth individuals, professionals, law enforcement offices and people in the public eye / household names.
Deepak has built his practice in defending serious and complex fraud cases which include conspiracies to defraud, relating to mis-selling investments, boiler room frauds, land banking frauds, advance fee frauds and various collective investment schemes, large scale mortgage frauds, vishing / phishing frauds, cross border money laundering, VAT and various HMRC offences.
Deepak also has vast experience in dealing with offences under the Proceeds of Crime Act, Confiscation and Asset Forfeiture, Restraint Orders and Extradition together with major / serious organised violent crimes including Murder, Corporate Manslaughter and Offences under the Health and Safety Work Act 1974.
Deepak has defended clients in some of the largest prosecutions in the country and is highly regarded and respected within the profession. He continues to work tirelessly and diligently to achieve the best results for all of his clients.
Deepak’s track record is both extensive and impressive. As a result of his reputation and success, Deepak has built his practice entirely on recommendations.
Deepak is also rated by VouchedFor and by Super Lawyers and described as a credit to the legal profession.
As a fraud supervisor and contract manager on the Very High Cost Cases (VHCC) Panel, Deepak has a vast amount of experience of working on VHCC cases, often involving multiple defendants, high value offences and major organised crime, which are usually accompanied by voluminous prosecution disclosure.
Deepak is a member of IR Global, the world’s largest exclusive network of advisory firms, where he is an advisor under the area of White Collar Crime. He is also a member of the LCCSA (London Criminal Courts Solicitors Association) and POCLA (Proceeds of Crime Lawyers Association).
Ranked in Directories as:
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Chambers, 2024
- Leading Individual in Financial Crime and Crime – Legal 500, 2024
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Chambers, 2023
- Leading Individual in Financial Crime and Crime – Legal 500, 2023
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Chambers, 2022
- Leading Individual in Financial Crime and Crime – Legal 500, 2022
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Chambers, 2021
- Leading Individual in Financial Crime and Crime – Legal 500, 2021
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Chambers, 2020
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Legal 500, 2020
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Chambers, 2019
- Band 1 in Financial Crime – Legal 500, 2019
What the Directories say:
- ‘He has really good instincts and is effective at attacking cases before they get underway.’ Chambers 2024
- ‘He never seems to be flustered and tactically he is first-rate.’ Chambers 2024
- ‘Is a calm and effective practitioner making a name for himself internationally’. Chambers 2024
- ‘Highly experienced in white-collar crime. He has seen it all.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Is a very heavyweight and well known specialist. He regularly features in high profile cases of utmost seriousness and complexity.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Has an incredible client following.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Clients facing the largest and most complex allegations of financial crime flock to him as they appreciate he is one of the very best solicitors in this area.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘He is always on top of the facts of the case he is dealing with and puts clients at ease.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘He is a delight to work with. I have always found him to be very intelligent and insightful. His understanding of trial strategy is highly impressive.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Is a truly exceptional team leader and solicitor of the fraud and business crime team.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Calm and meticulous, corporate and individual clients are always best served by Deepak and his team.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Enjoying now an international practice this team are up there competing with the large corporate firms, providing exceptional client care and representation.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘An outstanding solicitor and a master tactician.’ Legal 500, 2024
- ‘Deepak is very bright and he’s technically gifted.’ Chambers, 2023
- ‘He has excellent judgement and a superb all-round knowledge of the law.’ Chambers, 2023
- ‘Deepak is hard-working, exceptionally talented and maintains a formidable fraud caseload.’ Chambers, 2023
- ‘He’s a tactical genius who can see to the heart of a case in an instant.’ Chambers, 2023
- ‘Expert in defending serious and high-profile commercial and financial fraud cases.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Highly experienced criminal defence lawyer.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Continues to provide outstanding representation for high-profile corporate and individual clients, at an international level.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Insightful, dedicated and highly effective at achieving results for clients in large and high-profile cases.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Continues to provide outstanding representation for high profile corporate and individual clients, at an international level.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Deepak delivers the highest standard of legal advice and client care at all time.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Running the serious fraud and white collar crime team at ABV, Deepak has excellent capability coupled with first rate legal knowledge.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Unlike larger firms, Deepak provides a human side and level of engagement with the client that ensures maximum satisfaction and the efficient delivery of representation services.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘He is knowledgeable and a now a veteran of heavyweight white collar and financial crime.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Superb tactician and client handler.’ Legal 500, 2023
- ‘Deepak is highly skilled at handling complex financial crime matters, including money laundering investigations and investment fraud.’ Chambers, 2022
- ‘Advises on unexplained wealth orders, often with cross-border implications.’ Chambers, 2022
- ‘He is a highly thoughtful and strategic member of the firm, and is always on hand to offer helpful and calm advice.’ Chambers, 2022
- ‘He is straightforward and gets the client outstanding result.’ Chambers, 2022
- ‘Is an enormously experienced and exceptionally able fraud lawyer.’ Legal 500, 2022
- ‘He has an unerring perception of the real trial issues, which allows him to offer excellent, clear and practical strategic advice.’ Legal 500, 2022
- ‘His pursuit of the cause of his client is second to none.’ Legal 500, 2022
- ‘Is highly skilled at handling complex financial crime matters, including money laundering investigations and investment fraud.’ Chambers, 2021
- ‘He also advises on unexplained wealth orders, often with cross-border implications.’ Chambers, 2021
- ‘His commitment to his clients is exceptional.’ Chambers, 2021
- ‘He is very experienced, clever, well prepared and a good lateral thinker.’ Chambers, 2021
- ‘He is enormously talented yet down to earth and pragmatic in his approach.’ Chambers, 2021
- ‘Is highly specialized in the business crime area.’ Legal 500, 2021
- ‘Has a huge following, and is trusted and knowledgeable.’ Legal 500, 2021
- ‘Deepak is highly regarded for his expertise in fraud and money laundering matters.’ Chambers, 2020
- ‘He’s great with clients, he’s insightful and he gives pragmatic advice.’ Chambers, 2020
- ‘He handles things with real care and aplomb.’ Chambers, 2020
- ‘Has a strong serious fraud practice.’ Legal 500, 2020
- ‘Highly skilled, knowledgeable, and determined.’ Legal 500, 2019
- ‘Has an unerring ability to identify the key tactical and evidential issues in complicated cases.’ Legal 500, 2019
- ‘An outstanding reputation for fighting high-profile cases with a strategic approach.’ Legal 500, 2019
- ‘Deepak heads the team, he has excellent judgment and a strategic approach.’ Legal 500, 2019
- ‘Gives a premium service to his clients.’ Legal 500, 2018
- ‘Is experienced in multi-defendant trials, grey-collar crime matters and VAT and customs offence cases.’ Legal 500, 2018
- ‘White-collar crime and boiler room fraud expert.’ Legal 500, 2018
- ‘A formidable lawyer.’ Legal 500, 2017
Highly publicised investigation conducted by the Serious Fraud Office into bribery and corruption offences against Unaoil and affiliated companies. Linked to investigations conducted by the Department of Justice in the USA, Australia and Brazilian Authorities.
LONDON CAPITAL & FINANCE LTD
Serious Fraud Office investigation alleging an investment fraud where collectively over 11,000 investors lost circa £237 million. Highly publicised investigation leading to a Compensation Bill being laid out before Parliament and an independent investigation of the FCA action’s by an Independent Reviewer, Dame Elizabeth Gloster.
PATISSERIE HOLDING PLC
The Serious Fraud Office is conducting a criminal investigation into the business and accounting practices of individuals associated with Patisserie Holdings PLC, revealing allegedly an accounting irregularity of £94 million.
The SFO is investigating the activities of Petrofac PLC, it’s subsidiaries and their officers, employees and agents for bribery and corruption, including money laundering. The investigation into the use of agents in multiple jurisdictions including Saudia Arabia and Iraq is ongoing.
AMEC FOSTER WHEELER
SFO Investigation into allegations of bribery and corruption spanning from 1996 to 2014 relating to the use of agents across the world in Nigeria, Saudia Arabia, Malaysia, India and Brazil. Deferred Prosecution Agreement entered amounting to £103 million, which forms part of a global settlement with the UK, US and Brazillian authorities of $US 177 million.
BRITISH AMERICAN TOBACCO
Serious Fraud Office investigation into claims of bribery and corruption in one of the world’s largest suppliers of tobacco, British American Tobacco. Widely publicised including on the BBC Panorama where a whistle blower at BAT has made claims that substantial bribe payments were offered to those who obtained confidential information about the marketing and product knowledge from competitor tobacco producers.
CW Cheyney Lt- Southwark Crown Court
Pension Fund Fraud Case was referred by the Occupational Pensions Regulatory Authority and prosecuted by the SFO.
Operation Gillingham – Southwark Crown Court
FCA investigation into the conduct of Worthington Group PLC (WRN) and its subsidiaries. The FCA’s investigation shows that a number of the claims made by the company to that end were false and/or misleading, and were issued for the purpose of artificially inflating the share price for the benefit of a select group of those controlling the company, which in turn produced significant profits for those individuals when they liquidated part of their shareholdings following the announcements and during a brief period when the (previously suspended) shares were traded on the open market.
Operation Tidworth – Southwark Crown Court
Said to be one of the largest investigations conducted by the FCA in a share fraud carried out through a series of boiler room companies which led to the loss of £2.8 million of investors’ money. Defendants were alleged to have purchased a land in the Madeira Island in Portugal and offered shares to investors promising guaranteed returns.
Operation Ryeland – Southwark Crown Court
The City of London Police investigated this investment fraud which related to the miss-selling of land and carbon credits under three land banking schemes, operated by 8 defendants, who together conspired to defraud investors of approximately £3 million by making false representations about the development value of the investments.
During the investigation 3 of the defendants also set up a new company selling carbon credits. The police used intrusive surveillance techniques such as the installation of covert cameras in offices used by the defendant.
R v P – Investigation stage – FCA investigation
This case concerns a series of companies who were running a land banking scheme which fell into the description of a collective investment scheme this falling foul of the FSA Management Act. The case is said to be one of the biggest prosecutions brought.
R v N – Old Bailey
This serious allegation investigated by the FCA involves misrepresentations to investors re the sale of Green Belt land. The defendants ran a sophisticated operation to dupe investors and resulted in losses in excess of £6 million.
Operation Haselmere – FCA Investigation
An investigation conducted by the Financial Conduct Authority summarised as a “boiler room fraud” where unauthorised investment advice was offered and shares were sold at pre-initial Public Offerings. The said loss is around £4.5 million where a large number of shares sold were for public limited companies. The FCA allege that a number of front companies were used to disguise the true purpose of the business and to show that its operations were legitimate.
Operation Nacho – Leeds Crown Court
This matter relates to a multi-handed and large -scale property investment fraud involving a York based property club called Challenor Property Developments. The value of the fraud was estimated in excess of £2 million. The case involved over 130 franchise victims.
Operation Eastleigh – Southwark Crown Court
Deposit taking Ponzi investment scheme amounting to circa £1 million where investors were allegedly made false promises of returns. The FCA further allege breaches under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.
R v H – FCA Investigation
Insider dealing and market manipulation allegedly conducted by a Senior Officer of a well-known household PLC. The said Officer of the company received internal confidential information where he allegedly used that information to conduct spread betting.
INVESTMENT FRAUD (NON-FCA)
Thames Valley police investigation into investment fraud and the subsequent laundering of the proceeds. Investors were encouraged to invest in companies which they believed were listed on the New York Stock Exchange. Invested funds were directed into several mule accounts before being withdrawn. The loss to investors is in excess of £1m.
Investigation by the CPS-Specialist Fraud Division into the activities of Base2Trade Ltd, a company who claimed to invest in the binary options market. The company offered investments trading in Binary Options using an online trading platform. Investors from around the world invested vast sums of money into the company, initially they received substantial returns on investments before suffered crippling losses. The identified loss to investors amounted to in excess of £4million.
Operation Stagecoach – Blackfriars Crown Court
Defendants face charges of Conspiracy to Defraud where investors have allegedly been persuaded to buy rare earth elements. Transactions were carried out through an Escrow Agent and by over 40 brokers based in the UK. The value of the fraud is said to be circa £7 million.
R v C – City of London Investigation
The City of London are investigating this mammoth Ponzi investment scheme. Our client is one of a number of persons being investigated for this fraudulent investment scheme incurring a loss of substantial sums of money to investors. A number of companies, banks, famous footballers outside the jurisdiction including the Cayman Islands were used to perpetuate this fraud.
Operation Kanteen – Lewes crown Court
Multi-handed national fraud rogue trader investigation, targeting elderly or vulnerable victims. In excess of 170 victims in the operation who were contacted and given the impression that they were speaking to the police, trading standards or crown court judges. The investigation led to over 50 people being arrested with a total loss in excess of £3.5 million from the victims.
Operation Wintergreen – Southwark Crown Court
Investigation conducted by the City of London Police into the mis-selling of carbon credits. Offices were set up by the Defendants in expensive locations in the City of London, including the Gherkin building, where hundreds of people were recruited to target wealthy investors and deploy pressurised sale tactics. In total 130 victims made investments and purchased both CER and VER carbon credits.
Operation Jackdaw & Ivan- Reading Crown Court
An investigation into a series of investment (boiler room) frauds targeting vulnerable elderly people where “suckers lists” are allegedly used to target previous victims to re-invest. The value of this fraud is described in millions at present.
R v D – Maidstone Crown Court
This case concerned a multi-handed and serious conspiracy to defraud investors of circa £1/2 million of fine wine. Most of the targeted investors were vulnerable and elderly. The fraud was protracted and highly sophisticated.
CONSPIRACY TO DEFRAUD
City of London Police investigation to an ex-Bank of America employee who defrauded investors in excess of £1.5m. The investors believed they were investing in Bank of America portfolios and would receive substantial returns. Instead, their invested funds were used to support the Defendant’s lavish lifestyle.
Operation Joust- Reading Crown Court
This matter was regarded as one of the largest prosecutions of it’s time. The case concerned a sophisticated Conspiracy to Defraud Microsoft in excess of £60 million and was investigated and prosecuted jointly by the NCS and the FBI.
R v A – Investigations Stage
This case involves a well-established company who had an advanced fee arrangement with a prominent bank. The company was able to raise up to 80% of their invoices through the bank before they were settled. It is alleged that the company created false accounting in excess of £25 million. This case is at the investigation stage and has resulted in many arrests so far.
Operation Academy – Blackfriars Crown Court
Sophisticated investigation focused on skimming devices installed on TFL Ticket vending machines and other cash machines which were installed to obtain credit and debit card devices. Details obtained were then used to allegedly commit millions of pounds worth of fraud. The case was linked to a case investigated by the FBI and prosecuted in the USA.
R v C – National Mobile Phone Crime Unit Investigation
This investigation concerned allegations of a Conspiracy to Defraud the network service providers Vodafone, o2, EE and 3. In excess of 20 people were arrested. Those at the top of the chain are said to have recruited students from universities in the UK to apply for contracts in return for a fixed sum payments. Contracts were later cancelled by the company with the mobile phones being later sold and the customer being faced the burden of the airtime contract and mobile phone.
We are instructed to defend a number of individuals who are being investigated for a large -scale Conspiracy to Defraud relating to the order and delivery and subsequent disappearance of millions of pounds worth of Apple IPhones and IPads, and over 120 tonnes of Copper. The goods were ordered from companies in the Netherlands and Germany, from the defendants who purported to be from B & M Home Stores and SSE. This has been described as one of the largest Long Firm Frauds to be investigated.
Operation Calanth – Snaresbrook Crown Court
Conspiracy to commit fraud by false representation. The Defendants contacted computer supply companies pretending to be large companies and government agencies ordering high value computer supplies namely laptops and iPads. The defendants allegedly adopted false email address relating to legitimate business to order computer supplies. On-going proceedings with a loss value of circa £1.2 million.
R v N – Southwark Crown Court
This was a multi-handed case relating to a Conspiracy to Defraud to the tune of £1.2 million involving Sure Start Maternity Grants.
R v B & Others – Southwark Crown Court
This was a serious and multi- handed Conspiracy to Defraud the Ministry of Defence. The prosecution disclosure was mammoth and involved the instruction of forensic accounts to look into the accounts of a number of companies who falsified their respective accounts in respect of agency staff. The loss to the MOD was substantial.
Operation Illman- Old Bailey
We successfully represented a jockey in a high- profile horse race fixing / doping case relating to the defrauding of bookmakers. The matter was investigated and prosecuted by the National Crime Squad. Following legal submissions, the case was dismissed.
Operation Cart – Croydon Crown Court
Multi handed Conspiracy to Defraud the Central Clearing Banks of the U.K in one of the first high tech prosecutions brought by City of London police for Chip and Pin fraud. The defendants were described as being part of a sophisticated organised crime group.
R v G – Isleworth Crown Court
Alleged breach of trust case where the Defendant was suspected of abusing her position as a payroll manger to defraud her employer, Sodexo. In addition, the Defendant and others allegedly falsely applied for around 300 airside passes in return for remuneration, an act said to have caused a major breach of security at Heathrow airport.
R v W – Snaresbrook Crown Court
This case concerned a large telecoms multi handed fraud in which many multinational telecom companies were defrauded of airtime. The matter was investigated by the NCS and involved covert intrusive surveillance which was successfully challenged.
Operation Union – Birmingham Crown Court
The Defendant along with others committed frauds and other offences relating to cherished number plates from DVLA. The police conducted a lengthy surveillance operation to gather evidence in this complex fraud which also involved stolen and cloned vehicles.
R v G, S & A – Isleworth Crown Court
Multi-handed Conspiracy to Defraud involving the ‘Car Clocking’ of hundreds of cars, which were then distributed both Nationally and Internationally.
Operation Aquamarine – Southwark Crown Court
This Investigation was conducted by The City of London Police and related to a high value mortgage fraud to the tune of approximately £40 million. The defendants were alleged to have fraudulently obtained mortgages from Barclays Private Clients International Limited in the Isle of Man and Abbey Commercial Mortgages. 18 defendants were charged including solicitors, chartered surveyors, mortgage brokers and individuals from Barclays.
Operation Pontipandy – Kingston Crown Court
Multi handed large – scale mortgage fraud relating to numerous self-certification mortgages running into millions of pounds. Due to the sheer complexity of banking evidence and volume of disclosure served by the prosecution the defence successfully instructed forensic accountants.
R v N- Isleworth Crown Court
This matter related to a serious fraud and tax evasion exceeding £1.2M on a large buy to let property portfolio. The case involves a series of allegedly fraudulent mortgage applications over a ten- year period by the defendant and his wife. They were also accused of failing to pay income tax on the rental income and capital gains tax on the sale of the properties, whilst also making fraudulent applications for tax credits. The case involves dozens of mortgage applications and tenancy agreements, together with bank statements and related correspondence, amounting to in excess of 12,000 pages of prosecution evidence. A forensic defence accountant has been instructed to assist in this task.
Operation Look-in – Southwark Crown Court
The defendant was an accountant accused of a large -scale conspiracy relating to mortgage frauds involving the certification of hundreds of self-certified mortgages over a protracted period. The case involved handwriting and forensic experts being instructed and the consideration of a vast amount of prosecution disclosure.
Operation Systom – Luton Crown Court
Multi-handed Conspiracy to Defraud and Money Laundering relating to the acquisition of valuable land concerning a number of fraudulent mortgage applications being made for a very substantial loss. The prosecution disclosure was vast.
Operation Kemney/ CPS v Mattu  CRIM L.R 229CA – REPORTED CASE – Lewes Crown Court
Multi handed Money Laundering and Mortgage Fraud. The case involved complex confiscation proceedings involving millions of pounds worth of assets. This was a Reported case which dealt with the Breach of Promise namely promise on acceptable pleas/basis of plea and bail.
Operation Yalong – Southwark Crown Court
Multi-million-pound fraud where one of the defendants was alleged to have impersonated the owner of a property in a sophisticated operation to obtain a high value bridging loan. The proceeds were transferred to Dubai and removed.
Operation Railhead – Snaresbrook Crown Court
This was a serious and sustained Conspiracy to Cheat and Mortgage Fraud involving vast sums of monies. The matter took over two years to investigate due to the vast number of banks and different mortgage applications involved. The prosecution authority was HMRC.
Investigation into the activities of Redirect ADV Ltd a payroll company based in Dartford, Kent. The company was responsible for distributing monies to self-contractors on behalf of their clients. The company transferred funds out to beneficiaries who were not entitled to these funds causing a loss of £1m to nine separate businesses.
HMRC investigation into the tax affairs of Techonenic Ltd. It is alleged the company falsified VAT returns, invoices, and company accounts causing a loss to HMRC of £2.5million.
R v Z – Birmingham Crown Court
A £150 million corporation tax fraud where allegedly work was declared, that had not been undertaken, for an innovative project in science and technology in order to claim Research and Development Tax Relief. There is a complex arrangement of companies in the haven islands and overseas which requires detailed analysis of legal documents.
Operation Inertia – Kingston Crown Court
A high-profile case described as one of the largest Missing Trader / VAT Fraud investigation in the UK. The fraudulent companies involved ran a turnover, which was well in excess of £170 million. Companies both in the UK and in Europe were set up to falsely claim to sell mobile phones and other electronics in order to eventually syphon the VAT owed.
Operation Savate – Birmingham Crown Court
One of the largest frauds to be carried out using the Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) with £8 million loss to the Revenue. Allegations included Cheating the Revenue of VAT, Income tax, Corporation Tax and National Insurance Contributions and Money Laundering. Illegal activity involved more than 100 businesses across the country whose identity was either hijacked or were part of the fraud.
Operation Spartan – Croydon Crown Court
This is a large- scale VAT fraud within the construction/ labour industry which dealt with bogus CIS (Construction industry Scheme) claims. The loss to the Revenue amounted to millions of pounds and defence enquiries extended to enquiries in India.
R v S – Kingston Upon Hull Crown Court
This case involved a large -scale Facilitation of Illegal Immigrants working in the Labour industry in the UK under the CIS Scheme. The case required extensive international defence enquires principally in India. The defendant we represented was acquitted after a lengthy trial.
Operation Fusion – Southwark Crown Court
This multi defendant case investigated by HMRC involved a very large and serious Diversion Fraud relating to the export of vast sums of alcohol worth millions of pounds and fictitious bonded warehouses. The case related to the infamous London City Bond cases, which were successfully appealed before the Court of Appeal, due to evidence relating to paid informants.
Operation Eiger – Southwark Crown Court
This case concerned a huge Conspiracy to Evade Duty and VAT of circa £40 million relating to the smuggling of tobacco from China and Russia. The case involved three separate trials due to the number of defendants involved. The case was one of the largest prosecutions of its time.
Operation Lighthouse – Maidstone Crown Court
Multi-handed duty evasion case involved an operation, which lasted in excess of 15 months. The defendants are alleged to have brought alcohol into the country without the appropriate duty being paid. The estimated loss to the Revenue being in the region of £2 million.
R v Z – Southwark Crown Court
The case is split into two sections: a Multi-million pound VAT carousel fraud and duty evasion on cigarettes imported into the UK. Defendants were alleged to have falsely created companies to orchestrate transactions where a substantial amount of VAT was owed to the Revenue. Cigarettes were bought into the UK through importations of tissues and noodles.
Operation Varlet – Kingston Crown Court
Multi-handed Missing Trader/VAT Fraud worth millions of pounds of lost revenue generated from the supply of significant amounts of mobile phones in Europe.
Operation Duma – Birmingham Crown Court
Large Multi Handed VAT Carousel Fraud, investigated by Revenue Customs Prosecution Office. The loss was in several millions of pounds. The prosecution disclosure in this matter was very substantial.
Operation Bombard – Investigation Stage
HMRC in conjunction with the UK Border Force are leading this extensive investigation relating to the seizure of millions of pounds worth of cigarettes which were imported in several consignments into Heathrow Airport. The case involves substantial surveillance including convert and intrusive surveillance.
Operation Curtain- Investigation Stage
This investigation involves substantial surveillance by HMRC on the illicit activities of a number of individuals suspected of being involved in the fraudulent evasion of circa £2 million cigarettes. A vast amount of cash was seized during the investigation and a number of arrests have been made for the evasion of duty and for money laundering.
Operation Clumber – Harrow Crown Court
Multi-handed conspiracy to Evade Duty on the importation of vast consignments of Cigarettes and Tobacco resulting in a loss to the Revenue of many millions of pounds. The s urveillance operation involved many officers over a lengthy period of time both in the U.K and in a number of countries in Europe.
Operation Toolshed – Kingston Crown Court
This case concerns a multi handed Evasion of Duty, which involved the importation from Kuwait of a very large quantity of cigarettes, which resulted in a huge loss to the Revenue.
Operation Goodies/ R v Bajwa & Others  EWCA CRIM 1093 REPORTED CASE – Manchester Crown Court
Multi handed Conspiracy to Evade Duty on millions of smuggled cigarettes from China. The Proceeds of Crime Act Confiscation proceedings, which followed were one of the largest in the U.K and were delayed as a result of the case of R v May on Apportionment and Criminal Lifestyle.
Operation Cocoa – Guildford Crown Court
Large Conspiracy to Evade Duty on VAT in respect of high value jewellery, gold and diamonds allegedly being exported out of the U.K. Case required defence enquiries to be made in the Dubai gold souks.
Operation Trickshot – Guildford Crown Court
Case concerns multi-million pound charges of Cheating the Public Revenue and Money Laundering. The nature of the fraud was to take advantage of the VAT system which allows the Zero Rating of invoices and permits for any VAT spent on expenses incurred to be claimed by producing falsifying documentation. Defendant was also subject to complex Restraint Order and confiscation proceedings concerning multiple third parties.
CASH FOR CRASH
Operation Fustuscaro – Harrow Crown Court
Large scale investigation involving 19 defendants charged with offences of Conspiracy to Defraud by submitting fraudulent insurance claims. The individuals were divided into two separate organised crime networks who were actively arranging the crashes of vehicles with Tesco’s delivery vans. Crashes were alleged to be either staged or induced.
Operation Exhort – Luton Crown Court
This case concerned a major insurance ‘cash for crash’ scam operating in the south of the county. Bedfordshire police investigated these defendants for over 6 months for fictitious and staged accidents involving innocent motorists, resulting in a substantial loss to insurance companies. This was one of the first prosecutions of this kind.
Operation Salvage – Reading Crown Court
Operation commenced in 2014 where 550 car accidents in the East Berkshire and South Buckinghamshire region were said to have been involved in induced collisions. Subsequent compensation claims were paid out which were allegedly on the basis of false information.
LONG FIRM FRAUD
R v S – Southwark Crown Court
This investigation was conducted by City of London Police. The defendants were charged with a national fraud against credit and debit card companies with a loss of circa £1 million. The Crown alleged that there had been an abuse of provisions afforded to individuals such as credit protection, chargebacks and refunds. The defendants were said to have made a number of fraudulent transactions through complex arrangements and defrauded banks and merchant companies providing chip and pin facilities.
Operation Ribbon – Birmingham Crown Court
Multi handed Conspiracy to Defraud various companies of its creditors’ pre liquidation. The loss was several millions of pounds and the operation of the fraud deemed to be very sophisticated. This was considered to be one of the largest Long Firm Frauds ever prosecuted.
Operation Arcadia – Old Bailey
The City of London Police investigated this large scale, multi handed counterfeit fraud related to the manufacture, supply and distribution of a vast quantity of counterfeit DVDs by a sophisticated organised crime group. The value of the criminal enterprise was estimated to be in the millions.
R v M – Maidstone Crown Court
The case involved a senior NHS medical staff accused of manipulating the patient database system to inflate out of hours work figures. The Defence was focused on the disarray at the NHS patient management software and policy to increase workload to reduce waiting lists.
R v N – Guildford Crown Court
This case concerned a serious fraud against the NHS. The defendant was employed on an agency basis for the Bromley Primary Care Trust for a number of years as a commissioner who defrauded hundreds of thousands of pounds by dishonestly invoicing for the care of patients receiving services under the Mental Health Act.
Operation Abbeyville – Croydon Crown Court
This case consisted of 7 defendants, all charged with conspiracy to defraud the Secretary of Work and Pensions. There were two separate frauds involving the lead defendant. The case involved making false access to work claims. Access to work is a scheme to assist disabled individuals in obtaining and remaining in employment. In this case, the companies were employing individuals who were hard of hearing and the assistance provided through the scheme was sign language interpreters. The disclosure in this matter was very substantial.
Operation Lemondrop – Reading Crown Court
This case was prosecuted by HMRC and involved the covert and intrusive surveillance of the defendants who were charged with Cheating the Public Revenue and Benefit Fraud over a period of 15 years for a vast amount of money. The prosecution disclosure was substantial resulting in the instruction by the defence of forensic accountants.
VISHING / PHISHING FRAUD
Operation Kadenza – Southwark Crown Court
A “vishing and phishing” fraud with an alleged loss of £113 million, where an organised crime group infiltrated the systems of Royal Bank of Scotland, Barclays and Lloyds Banking Group and targeted their business customers. Seven different police forces were involved in this investigation.
Operation Falcon – Blackfriars Crown Court
Sophisticated vishing fraud where bank accounts, email addresses and other personal data was hacked to obtain personal and sensitive data which was used to conduct a vishing fraud with a value of over £12.5 million.
Operation Alyxia – Southwark Crown Court
An investigation which stemmed from Operation Kadenza (£113 million vishing fraud). Employees within RBS and the Lloyds bank provided other individuals with confidential client information. Bank accounts were then accessed and sums withdrawn or utilised to commit fraud.
Operation Bizet – Guildford Crown Court
This was a serious, sophisticated and multi -handed case involving a conspiracy to defraud various high street banks. The case was aggravated by the fact that the targeted victims of this fraud concerned vulnerable & elderly victims by an organised crime group who worked within the banks and managed to scam hundreds of thousands of pounds.
R v N & Others – Croydon Crown Court
The City of London Police investigated this multi- million pound Conspiracy to Defraud case which involved, at the time, one of the largest ever banking frauds. The defendants were faced with lengthy & complex confiscation proceedings involving criminal lifestyle.
R v C & Others – Oxford Crown Court
This was a multi-handed and large -scale fraud relating to the purchase of a vast quantity of vehicles using compromised credit card details provided by members of an organised crime group, some of whom worked for a number of high street banks.
Operation Spruce – Reading Crown Court
Large multi handed Conspiracy to Defraud, Conspiracy to Pervert the Course of Justice and Perjury resulting from the local elections in Slough, Berkshire. The volume of the prosecution disclosure was substantial and involved a very lengthy trial.
NCA investigations into the transportation of large amounts cash from the UK to the UAE. It is estimated from April 2019-November 2020 the organised criminal network transferred in excess of £100m. This money was carried in suitcases and checked in by passengers who were paid to transport the money to the UAE.
Operation Surging – Southwark Crown Court
An investigation conducted by the National Crime Agency where it is suspected that the organised crime group has laundered large quantities of cash, estimated to be at least £40 million. The source of the criminal conduct is believed to be derived from bonded alcohol which has been diverted to the UK market without the payment of an excise duty.
R v D – Isleworth Crown Court
A multi-handed case relating to over £8 million laundered. Substantial surveillance conducted over a lengthy period of time. Evidence of criminality was purely circumstantial therefore the principles in R v Anwoir 1998 were central to this case.
R v K – Southwark Crown Court
The defendant was said to be the owner of a number of illegitimate money exchange bureaus across the U.K who had through a sophisticated manner had laundered in excess of £9.2 million with the assistance of a number of other defendants. The phone and cell site evidence produced by the prosecution was successfully undermined.
Operation Unphazed – Nottingham Crown Court
The case centres around allegations of a Missing Trader/ VAT Fraud and money laundering to the value of £10 million which resulted in alleged breaches of the Money Laundering Regulations 2007 and offences under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002. Over 50 companies based in the UK and Europe were said to be involved in complex chains of transactions where the Defendant was acting as an Escrow Agent.
Operation Solitude – Reading Crown Court
Alleged to be a serious money service bureau operation which was used to transfer criminal property obtained through drug dealing by other suspects in the South East of the UK. Sums of cash handled by the Defendants exceed £4.5 million.
Operation Accolade – Reading Crown Court
This investigation concerned an allegation that the Defendant which we represented was a sophisticated and cunning money launderer who was closely linked with serious and organised criminality in the Thames Valley, Hampshire and Surrey areas. The prosecution relied Based on surveillance and cell site evidence to attempt to prove the movement and launder of millions of pounds through numerous bank accounts. The case was linked to R v A and Operation Quaker.
Operation Addlings – Blackfriars Crown Court
Sophisticated hawala banking alleged money laundering operation where Defendants are linked to the operation due to hundreds of £5 “token notes” found on mobile phones which suggest that millions of pounds were laundered.
Operation Belman – Manchester Crown Court
This case is linked to Operation Façade. Charges were brought after a BBC Panorama programme in respect of systematic cheating on English Language Testing (TOEIC) at colleges where these tests were being sat by ‘pilots’ and the colleges were allegedly facilitating such cheating. As a result of these test results, applicants were able to fulfil certain criteria in their visa applications. The defendant received training by ETS as an administrator for TOEIC testing and was part of the senior management at the college. Case required a detailed understanding of the education system and role of testing centres with education institutions.
Operation Diviner: R v C & K and Others – Inner London Crown Court
This was one of the largest ever prosecutions brought by the UKBA. The case involved a sophisticated multi handed conspiracy to facilitate the immigration of asylum seekers into the UK, following a nine -month covert operation at Heathrow Airport. The case related to Afghan illegal immigrants who were provided with counterfeit passports by the organised crime group.
Operation Yacer – Reading Crown Court
This highly published case featured on the TV series ‘UK Border Force’ and involved a large Conspiracy to Facilitate Illegal Entry into the U.K prosecuted by the UKBA. The case involved a number of defendants who arranged Sham Marriages on a commercial scale across the U.K.
Operation Tobin – Harrow Crown Court
Multi-handed Conspiracy to Defraud the Secretary of State for the Home Office. The defendants were said to have caused and permitted false financial information in support of applications for Tier 1 Immigration Visas.
Operation Carpal – Stafford Crown Court
This large Conspiracy to Facilitate Illegal Immigration involved People Trafficking from India. The case received a great deal of publicity as the News of the World provided front page coverage and reported the case to the police. The case Involved extensive defence enquiries in India.
Operation Swale – Isleworth Crown Court
This prosecution was brought by the UKBA and officers from SCD9 following, the highly publicised prosecution of the ‘ Sharma Uni-Visa’ Scam. This case involved a large scale multi handed Conspiracy to Defraud the Secretary of State together with numerous immigration offences namely Facilitation of non EU Nationals to Remain in the U.K or Gain Entry into the U.K by Deception and Money Laundering. The case surrounded false documentation and a fictitious Indian website and falsely created organisation called Telugu One which was used to facilitate the fraud.
R v S – Kingston Upon Hull Crown Court
This case involved a large -scale Facilitation of Illegal Immigrants working in the Labour industry in the UK under the CIS Scheme. The case required extensive international defence enquires principally in India. The defendant we represented was acquitted after a lengthy trial.
Operation Coptine – Leicester Crown Court
This matter involved a multi handed – Conspiracy to Facilitate Illegal Immigration involving People trafficking from South Africa. The case was described as one of the biggest of that time.
Investigation by UK Border Agency officers in respect of Human Trafficking from the Middle East. The defendant is accused of facilitating the illegal entry of clandestines into the UK.
MURDER & MANSLAUGHTER
Operation Xantus – Guildford Crown Court
A highly publicised case in which the Defendant, a high-flying City Banker, faced a trial for the murder of his wife who was a successful business woman in their newly built £2 million family home. The Defendant accepted the unlawful killing of his wife but at the time of doing so, was suffering from an abnormal mental functioning of the mind. Difficult and complicated case, both emotionally and legally, which required the use of experts to determine whether the Defendant was suffering from an abnormality at the time of the unlawful killing despite considerable evidence of premeditation in the days leading up to the killing.
Operation Garomna – Central Criminal Court
Multi-handed Murder relates to the killing of the CEO of Sikh TV. The case attracted a vast amount of publicity. The defendant whom we represented was acquitted of murder and received a 6 years sentence for GBH.
Operation Embry Hills – Central Criminal Court
This case involved the high profile’ Honour Killing’ in Greenford where the victim’s hand was chopped off during the assault. The Murder was alleged to be a Contract Killing, which resulted in the conviction of all the defendants including her estranged husband.
Operation Henegar – Old Bailey
Represented a Defendant in a multi-handed case where some defendants were charged with murder and fraud, whilst others were involved in a conspiracy to defraud a wealthy oil executive. Her decomposing body was found in a garage in London.
R v CD – Reading Crown Court
The Defendant was charged with Murder following his driving at high speed into a group of males in Ascot following an earlier altercation between a group who were fighting each other. Difficult case with expert evidence called to determine an accidental cause of death.
R v S and Others – Reading Crown Court
Successfully defended a client charged with a Multi- handed Murder investigated by Thames Valley Police Major Crime Unit. It involved an Arson attack on a house in Maidenhead. We secured the acquittal of one of the defendants who had originally fled to India following the incident.
Operation Chambrak – Croydon Crown Court
The Defendant was charged with the attempted murder of two individuals, one of whom suffered life changing injuries. The case was investigated by the Trident Gang Crime Command Unit. The two victims received multiple gun shot wounds at close range. The Prosecution relied upon extensive cell site and ANPR evidence.
R v D & Others – Ipswich Crown Court
Providing advice and assistance in relation to the preparation of a key witness statement and advising on the merits and otherwise for giving live evidence at a Murder trial involving the client’s husband and daughter.
Operation Cartwright – Kingston Crown Court
High profile Heathrow heist namely a conspiracy to rob Swissport. The offence was committed by a number of defendants who were all arrested at the scene. The potential loss of the target cash and gold bullion was estimated at £90 million.
Operation Fairford – Manchester Crown Court
High profile case consisting of a multi-handed conspiracy to assist an offender. Investigation followed from the nationwide man hunt of Dale Cregan who was wanted for the double murder of two males and officers using a firearm and military grenades. ABV represented a Defendant who was alleged to have assisted Dale Cregan whilst he was on the run.
Operation Consonant – St Albans Crown Court
The case was a multi-handed serious honour crime with allegations of Conspiracy to Kidnap, False Imprisonment and Assault. Defendants charged included family members and individuals who were instructed as “heavy weights” to take part in a series of assaults, including kidnapping the victim and taking him to a remote location. Issues in the case were particularly sensitive as they involved a male and female from a Muslim background.
R v K Reading Crown Court
Multi-handed Conspiracy to Blackmail over a dispute of substantial sums of money and a serious shooting in Slough, Berkshire. Cross border issues in relation to the service of evidence arose.
R v G – Southwark Crown Court
An allegation of Assault Occasioning Grievous Bodily Harm (GBH) following a large ‘brawl’ at a well-established Mayfair Club. The prosecution failed to provide all the disclosure and the evidence requested, despite numerous requests which led to the case being dismissed two days before the trial was fixed.
Serious DRUGS offences
Investigation by the NCA into the supply of class A drugs, firearms and ammunition in the UK. The organised criminal group imported in excess of one ton of cocaine, handguns, sub-machine guns and ammunition into the UK using encrypted phones known as EncroChat devices.
An investigation conducted by the NCA into an organised crime group based in South East England with links to Brazil, Jamaica, Portugal and South Africa. The methodology used by the Defendants, some of whom were British Airways baggage handlers, included circumventing border controls to smuggle over £32 million of Class A and B drugs. This was an extensive surveillance operation where around 200 media devices were seized.
A highly sophisticated operation which was investigated by the National Crime Agency where a “massive” cannabis production factory was raided. The Defendants were part of an Albanian crime syndicate who utilised a warehouse to run their operation. The architecture of the warehouse was complex with a specialist design to create tens of purpose built sections to conceal the plants and to avoid detection. Over £5 million worth of drugs were seized, 70 mobile phones and surveillance was conducted over a period of a year.
Operation Halimous – Central Criminal Court
The NCA commenced an investigation and substantial surveillance operation concerning the smuggling of Class A and B drugs which were being sent to the UK via Royal Mail (Parcel Force). The Prosecution suspect that insiders within the Royal Mail were part of the organised crime group.
Operation Culgao – Maidstone Crown Court
This involved the importation of approximately 20 kg of Cocaine from Africa, which was smuggled on commercial passenger British Airways flights in food catering pods. The case was investigated by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) and resulted in the charging of many defendants following surveillance over a lengthy period of time.
Operation Cook – Reading Crown Court
A large multi- handed drugs case, involving over two tons of Class B drugs being imported into the U.K via sea freight from Ghana. The case also involved multiple kilos of Class A drugs over an 18 months period from Jamaica and St Lucia via air freight.
Operation Occasion – Winchester Crown Court
Multi handed Conspiracy alleging the importation and distribution of a vast quantity of Cocaine by a large Organised Crime Enterprise associated to Nigeria. The Jury were asked following legal arguments to return verdicts of Not Guilty against the defendant we represented.
Operation Stork – Reading Crown Court
This case concerned the surveillance by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) of individuals who were thought to be an organised crime group operating a supply of Class A drugs in the Thames valley Area.
Operation Sconce – Reading Crown Court
A large conspiracy to supply a vast quantity of Class A and B drugs through an organised crime group over a prolonged period of time. The case involved an extensive surveillance operation by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA).
Operation Sauce – Reading Crown Court
Investigation conducted by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) into the supply of Class A drugs in the Thames Valley area.
Operation Bizarre – Leeds Crown Court
Multi handed conspiracy to supply a vast amount of Class A drugs Nationwide. This was investigated by the Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) and involved covert surveillance and audio probe evidence over a period of over 10 months.
Operation Tunnel – Leicester Crown Court
Multi-handed Conspiracy to Import Class A Drugs, which was investigated by SOCA (Serious and Organised Agency). Concerned approximately 93 Kg of Heroin imported from Karachi, Pakistan concealed skilfully in various vegetables.
Operation Propal – Stafford Crown Court
Large scale, multi-handed Conspiracy to Supply Class A Drugs following the arrests of some of the defendants from Barbados Airport in possession of a large quantity of Cocaine. A further large quantity of Cocaine is said to have been imported in separate multiple supplies from Venezula and then distributed within the U.K.
Operation Waterfront – Derby Crown Court
Case concerns a large-scale conspiracy to supply of class A drugs across the Nottinghamshire and Chesterfield areas where arrests were made after extensive police surveillance. The network is said to have generated a revenue of nearly half a million per annum. In the absence of any actual drugs seized the evidence is formed almost exclusively of mobile phone data.
Operation Usurp – Chelmsford Crown Court
Officers from the Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Berkshire, Essex and London areas conducted an extensive investigation over a significant period of time into the supply of high purity Class A drugs. Targets included those who were senior members of the Organised Crime Group with differing roles in the drugs supply chain. Over 40 mobile phones were examined in detail to demonstrate the daily movements of the Defendants together with use of ANPR and surveillance evidence.
Operation Mohican – Southampton Crown Court
The case is linked to Operation Fortress and was a multi-handed Conspiracy to Supply Class A and B drugs. Following an extensive investigation spanning over a year and a half, the Defendants were said to have been supplying drugs from the West London area to Southampton. A number of dealer lines were associated to the Defendants which led to the extensive examination of over 50 mobile phones.
This case concerned a client charged with an 8 handed Conspiracy to Supply both cocaine and heroin within the Southampton area. Prosecution alleged that our client played a leading role in the distribution network by sourcing the drugs in London before sending them down to Southampton for onward supply. Defence counsel made a successful half-time submission of no case to answer in respect of the Conspiracy to Supply Heroin count.
This case concerned a multi-handed investigation into the importation and manufacture of a substantial quantity of Class C controlled drugs, namely steroids, and the subsequent laundering of the criminal proceeds of crime. The value of the drugs was over a million pounds and the offence was committed over a significant period of time. The most unusual feature of this case was that the drugs were being sold on the internet through e-bay using shell companies for marketing and payment.
Spain v D N – City of Westminster Magistrates Court
This case involved a European Arrest Warrant (EAW) for an attempted murder in Spain. The matter was highly publicised in the media in Spain as it involved a British National who was working in Spain at the time of the incident.
We have been working closely with Fair Trials International and with a number of Spanish Criminal Lawyers, including the British Consulate in Spain to ensure the proper representation and welfare of our client in Spain.
CONSPIRACY TO STEAL
Investigation by the aviation authority based at Heathrow airport into the theft from aircraft specifically from British Airways by airport employees. The loss to British Airways is estimated to be in excess of £1m. The organised criminal network stole high value items which they then sold for substantial profit.
Investigation by the aviation authority based at Heathrow airport into the theft of cargo from Heathrow Airport by airport employees. The total loss is estimated to be in excess of £1m. The Defendant was part of a criminal network who identified consignments containing high value goods including designer handbags and jewellery.
Operation Sorrel – Reading Crown Court
Multi-handed Conspiracy to Steal of over 100 high performance vehicles stolen from across the UK which were exported to Africa and the Middle East. The gain to the Defendants was alleged to have been in the region of £15 million. The vehicles were stolen using sophisticated keyless technology to create a third key through the use of specialist diagnostic equipment. With the assistance of trackers, the Defendants were able to steal vehicles, change their identities and remove them from the UK jurisdiction.
R v A - Isleworth Crown Court
Multi handed Conspiracy to Steal from a number of Travelex Bureau’s in Heathrow Airport. Some of the defendants worked in various branches within the airport. The case was widely reported at the time for this serious internal theft conspiracy.
R v G – Birmingham Crown Court
Investigation conducted by the Environment Agency where a number of suspects have been interviewed facing allegations of illegally depositing high volumes of baled refused derived fuel at multiple vulnerable industrial sites across the Midlands. Further allegations faced are fraud, money laundering and large scale criminal damage. The value of the fraud is in excess of £40 million. Some suspects now face charges of Contempt of Court in respect of disclosure relating to Restraint Order proceedings.
R v Y – Wolverhampton Crown Court
Large Trading Standards prosecution concerning a well-known company based in the Midlands. Allegations include the company being involved over a systematic period of time in a commercial large-scale fraud. A vast number of consumers were said to be misled and were provided quotes for work which represented gross overcharging designed to dupe and mislead vulnerable adults.
R v T – Winchester Crown Court
Investigation conducted by Trading Standards into a business selling over 100 vehicles where the odometer was falsified together with other malfunctions. Vehicles were sold all over the Hampshire region and beyond. Extreme lengths were deployed by the defendants to source the vehicles, alter their identity together with official documents and arrange their sale.
R v G – Harrow Crown Court
Investigation conducted by Trading Standards where the Defendant is said to have been selling mobile phones and other accessories in breach of Trade Mark offences and electrical safety regulations. Complex confiscation proceedings which followed where the Council sought to include past sales from many companies belonging to the Defendant in the benefit figure. The turnover of the companies amounted to millions of pounds.
London Borough of Tower Hamlets v P – Snaresbrook Crown Court
Numerous Trade Mark offences relating to the distribution of a vast amount of cosmetic products from various markets including Petticoat Lane.
Fife Council v S & C – Kingston Crown Court
Prosecution concerning a number of Trade Mark Act offences in respect of counterfeit goods sold on Ebay which were sourced from China and Hong Kong with a value of at least £600,000. The case involved complex pre charge Restraint Orders.
Surrey County Council v G & Others – Guildford Crown Court
Large scale, multi handed Hallmark and Trade Description fraud together with a number of Money Laundering offences. The fraud consisted of the sale of hundreds of items of counterfeit jewellery in markets but predominantly on Ebay. The value of the fraud is said to be in excess of £ ½ million.
Luton Borough Council v R & Others – Luton Crown Court
Multi handed Trade Marks Act conspiracy relating to a vast quantity of counterfeit goods and Money Laundering. The prosecution agency was the Trading Standards department at Luton Borough Council. The case involved complex pre charge Restraint Orders.